Basic Info. about DVD

Editor’s note: Here we give the basic information about DVD, all the contents from internet, this article is just gather the information for you.

In this article you will see: what is DVD, DVD Size, DVD Write and read speeds, DVD-Video Technical Info, DVD File/Folder structure.

DVD stands for Digital Versatile/Video Disc, DVDR stands for DVD Recordable and DVDRW for DVD ReWriteable. If you’re familiar with regular audio/music CDs or regular DVD-Video discs, then you will know what a recordable DVD looks like. A recordable DVD stores up to 2 hours of very good quality DVD-Video, including several audio tracks in formats like stereo, Dolby Digital or DTS and also advanced menu systems, subtitles and still pictures that can be played by many standalone DVD Players and most computer DVD-ROMs. If you choose to lower the video quality it is possible to store several hours video on a recordable DVD using low bitrates and low resolution with video quality more like VHS, SVHS, SVCD, CVD or VCD. It is also possible to have up to 4.37* GB ordinary data or mix DVD-Video and data on a recordable DVD that can be played by most computer DVD-ROMs.

There are three competing DVD Recording standards, DVD-R/DVD-RW and DVD+R/DVD+RW have pretty similiar features and are compatible with many standalone DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs while DVD-RAM has less DVD Player and DVD-ROM compatibility but better recording features.

DVD-R and DVD-RW
DVD-R was the first DVD recording format released that was compatible with standalone DVD Players.
DVD-R is a non-rewriteable format and it is compatible with about 93% of all DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs.
DVD-RW is a rewriteable format and it is compatible with about 80% of all DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs.
DVD-R and DVD-RW supports single side 4.37 GiB* DVDs(called DVD-5) and double sided 8.75 GiB* DVDs(called DVD-10).
These formats are supported by DVDForum.

DVD+R and DVD+RW
DVD+R is a non-rewritable format and it is compatible with about 89% of all DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs.
DVD+RW is a rewritable format and is compatible with about 79% of all DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs.
DVD+R and DVD+RW supports single side 4.37 GiB* DVDs(called DVD-5) and double side 8.75 computer GB* DVDs(called DVD-10).
These formats are supported by the DVD+RW Alliance.

DVD+R DL
DVD+R DL or called DVD+R9 is a Dual Layer writeable DVD+R. The dual layered discs can hold 7.95 GiB* (called DVD-9) and dual layered double sides 15.9* GiB (called dvd-18).

DVD-R DL
DVD-R DL or called DVD-R9 is a Dual Layer writeable DVD-R. The dual layered discs can hold 7.95 GiB* (called DVD-9) and dual layered double sides 15.9* GiB (called dvd-18).

DVD-RAM

DVD-RAM has the best recording features but it is not compatible with most DVD-ROM drives and DVD-Video players. Think more of it as a removable hard disk. DVD-RAM is usually used in some DVD Recorders.

DVD Sizes

The DVD sizes can be a bit confusing. There are basicly 4 different DVD Sizes,

DVD-5, holds around 4 700 000 000 bytes and that is 4.37 GiB where 1 kbyte is 1024 bytes* . DVD+R/DVD+RW and DVD-R/DVD-RW supports this format. Also called Single Sided Single Layered. This is the most common DVD Media, often called 4.7 GB Media. 

DVD-10
, holds around 9 400 000 000 bytes and that is 8.75 GiB. DVD+R/DVD+RW and DVD-R/DVD-RW supports this format. Also called Double Sided Single Layered.

DVD-9
, holds around 8 540 000 000 bytes and that is 7.95 GiB. DVD+R supports this format. Also called Single Sided Dual Layered. This media is called DVD-R9, DVD-R DL, DVD+R9, DVD+R DL or 8.5 GB Media.

DVD-18
, holds around 17 080 000 000 bytes and that is 15.9 GiB. DVD+R supports this format. Also called Double Sided Dual Layered.

* GiB = In the computer world is 1 KB data = 1024 bytes so 4 700 000 000 bytes / 1024 = 4 589 843KB / 1024 = 4482MB / 1024 = 4.37GB. See section 3.3 in the DVDDemystified FAQ here.
DVD+R/DVD+RW/DVD+R DL and DVD-R/DVD-RW exact sizes
DVD-R/DVD-RW = 4 706 074 624 bytes ( 4488 MB )
DVD+R/DVD+RW = 4 700 372 992 bytes ( 4482 MB )
DVD+R DL = 8 547 993 600 bytes ( 8152 MB )

DVD Write and read speeds

Single Layer(4.7GB) write speeds
1x (CLV) = about 58 minutes
2x (CLV) = about 29 minutes
2.4x (CLV) = about 24 minutes
4x (CLV) = about 14.5 minutes
6x (CLV/ZCLV) = about 10-12 minutes
8x (PCAV/ZCLV) = about 8-10 minutes
12x (PCAV/ZCLV) = about 6.5-7.5 minutes
16x (CAV/ZCLV) = about 6-7 minutes

Dual/Double Layer(8.5GB) write speeds
1x CLV = about 105 minutes
2.4x CLV = about 44 minutes
4x CLV = about 27 minutes

Single Layer (4.7GB) read speeds
1x read speed is 1.321MB/s = ~56 minutes
6x CAV (avg. ~4x) read speed is max 7.93MB/s = ~14 minutes
8x CAV (avg. ~6x) read speed is max 10.57MB/s = ~10 minutes
12x CAV (avg. ~8x) read speed is max 15.85MB/s = ~7 minutes
16x CAV (avg. ~12x) read speed is max 21.13MB/s = ~5 minutes

* write speed time and read speed time is not the same because writing requires some extra steps and also does the faster writing above 6x usually use lower write speeds for some parts of the dvd. 4x DVD speed = 36x CD speed. See section 4.2 in the DVDDemystified FAQ here.

Technical Info for DVD-Video

 

PAL

Video:
Up to 9.8 Mbit/s* (9800 Kbit/s*) MPEG2 video
Up to 1.856 Mbit/s (1856 Kbit/s) MPEG1 video
720 x 576 pixels MPEG2 (Called Full-D1)
704 x 576 pixels MPEG2
352 x 576 pixels MPEG2 (Called Half-D1, same as the CVD Standard)
352 x 288 pixels MPEG2
352 x 288 pixels MPEG1 (Same as the VCD Standard)
25 fps*
16:9 Anamorphic (only supported by 720×576)

Audio:
48000 Hz
32 – 1536 Kbit/s
Up to 8 audio tracks containing Dolby Digital, DTS, PCM(uncompressed audio), MPEG-1 Layer2. One audio track must have MPEG-1, DD or PCM Audio.

Extras:
Motion menus, still pictures, up to 32 selectable subtitles, seamless branching for multiple storylines, 9 camera angles. And also additional DVD-ROM / data files that only can be read by computer DVD drives.

Total:
Total bitrate including video, audio and subs can be max 10.08 Mbit/s (10080 Kbit/s)

* Mbit/s = million bits per second
* Kbit/s = thousand bits per second 
* fps = frames per second 

For more technical DVD-Video details read the DVDDemystified DVD FAQ section 3.4

NTSC (NTSC Film)

Video:
Up to 9.8 Mbit/s* (9800 Kbit/s*) MPEG2 video
Up to 1.856 Mbit/s (1856 Kbit/s) MPEG1 video
720 x 480 pixels MPEG2 (Called Full-D1)
704 x 480 pixels MPEG2
352 x 480 pixels MPEG2 (Called Half-D1, same as the CVD Standard)
352 x 240 pixels MPEG2
352 x 240 pixels MPEG1 (Same as the VCD Standard)
29,97 fps*
23,976 fps with 3:2 pulldown = 29,97 playback fps (NTSC Film, this is only supported by MPEG2 video)
16:9 Anamorphic (only supported by 720×480)

Audio:
48000 Hz
32 – 1536 Kbit/s
Up to 8 audio tracks containing DD (Dolby Digital/AC3), DTS, PCM(uncompressed audio), MPEG-1 Layer2. One audio track must have DD or PCM Audio.

Extras:
Motion menus, still pictures, up to 32 selectable subtitles, seamless branching for multiple storylines, 9 camera angles. And also additional DVD-ROM / data files that only can be read by computer DVD drives.

Total:
Total bitrate including video, audio and subs can be max 10.08 Mbit/s (10080 Kbit/s)

* Mbit/s = million bits per second
* Kbit/s = thousand bits per second 
* fps = frames per second 

For more technical DVD-Video details read the DVDDemystified DVD FAQ section 3.4

DVD File/Folder Structure

Explanation:

. BUP = Backup files of the IFO files.

. IFO = The IFO files includes information such as chapters, subtitle tracks and audio tracks.

. VOB = The VOB files contains the actual video,audio,subtitles and menus.

Folder Files Explanation
AUDIO_TS (undefined)
VIDEO_TS VIDEO_TS.BUP
VIDEO_TS.IFO The first video play item, IFO, usally a copyright notice or a menu
VIDEO_TS.VOB The first video play item, VOB
VTS_01_0.BUP
VTS_01_0.IFO Title Set 01IFO, usually the main movie
VTS_01_0.VOB Title Set 01, VOB 0, the menu for this title
VTS_01_1.VOB Title Set 01, VOB 1, the video for this title
VTS_01_2.VOB Title Set 01, VOB 2, if larger than 1 GB it will be splitted into several vobs
VTS_01_3.VOB Title Set 01, VOB 3
VTS_01_4.VOB Title Set 01, VOB 4, up to 10(0-9) VOB files if necassary
VTS_02_0.BUP
VTS_02_0.IFO Title Set 02IFO, usually movie extras
VTS_02_0.VOB Title Set 02, VOB 0, the menu for this title
VTS_02_1.VOB Title Set 02, VOB 1, the video for this title
VTS_xx_x.BUP
VTS_xx_x.IFO And so on
VTS_xx_x.VOB
VTS_xx_x.VOB
VTS_99_9.VOB Up to 99(1-99) titles with max 10(0-9) VOB files each

Advanced DVD-Video file specification here

source: http://www.videohelp.com/dvd

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